Citations and references style

Citations will not be accepted from monographs, dissertations, theses, summaries and publications of the proceedings or annals of scientific events.

 Examples of Bibliographical References

The citations in the running text or between parentheses, and references to articles submitted to BJVM, must follow the current guidelines of the American Psychological Association (APA) (Reference Examples).

Citations in the text:

  • One author:

Mitchell (2017) or (Mitchell, 2017)

  • Two authors

Mitchell and Smith (2017) or (Mitchell & Smith, 2017).

  • Three or more authors:

Mitchell et al. (2017) or (Mitchell et al., 2017).


For works published the same year with slight variation of authors, it will be necessary to include the names of the other authors until indicating the difference:

Kapoor, Bloom, Montez et al. (2017) or (Kapoor, Bloom, Montez et al., 2017).

Kapoor, Bloom, Zucker et al. (2017) or (Kapoor, Bloom, Zucker et al., 2017).

Hasan, Liang, Kahn, and Jones-Miller (2015) or (Hasan, Liang, Kahn, and Jones-Miller, 2015)

Hasan, Liang, Kahn, and Weintraub (2015) or (Hasan, Liang, Kahn, and Weintraub, 2015)


  • Entities as Authors:

When the author of a reference is an institution, governmental agency or other entity, mention the organization in the relevant sentence or in the citation between parentheses the first time the source is mentioned.

First citation:

World Health Organization (WHO, 2019) or (World Health Organization [WHO], 2019)

Subsequent citations:

WHO (2019) or (WHO, 2019)  

  • Two or more works in the same set of parentheses:

For cases of two or more works mentioned in the same set of parentheses, list them in alphabetical order and separate them with a semicolon.

Example: Various studies (Jones, 2012; Smith, 2009)

Authors with the same surname: use the initials of the first names with the surname to avoid confusion.

Example: (B. Smith, 2009; J. Smith, 2006).

  • Two or more works with the same authorship and year:

When there are two references by the same author(s) published in the same year, use lowercase letters (a, b, c) with the year to order them in the reference list.

Example: This is explained in the study of Smith (1999a).

[Note my slight changes in Capitalization of the items below. The main words in book titles should all be capitalized (other than after a colon), according to what I learned in school. However, that was 50 years ago, so if the style has changed, I stand corrected.]

References by type

  • Books (without DOI and with DOI): Do not include the place of publication.

Jones, A.F & Wang, L. (2011). Spectacular Creatures: The Amazon Rainforest (2nd ed.). My Publisher.

Gilovich, T., Griffin, D., & Kahneman, D. (Eds.). (2002). Heuristics and Biases: The psychology of intuitive judgment. Cambridge University Press.

Mitchell, J.A., Thomson, M., & Coyne, R.P. (2017). A Guide to Citation. My Publisher.

Note that the names of books and periodicals must appear in Italics.

  • Book Chapters: Do not include the place of publication.

Aron, L., Botella, M., & Lubart, T. (2019). Culinary arts: Talent and their development. In R. F. Subotnik, P. Olszewski-Kubilius, & F. C. Worrell (Eds.), The Psychology of High Performance: Developing human potential into domain-specific talent (pp. 345–359).American Psychological Association.

Troy, B.N. (2015). APA citation rules. In S.T, Williams (Ed.). A Guide to Citation Rules (2nd ed., pp. 50-95). Publishers

  • E-Books and Audiobooks

Cain, S. (2012). Quiet: The power of introverts in a world that can’t stop talking (K. Mazur, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Random House Audio. http.//

Chistian, B., & Griffiths, T. (2016). Algorithms to Live by: The computer science of human decisions. Henry Holt and Co.

  • E-Book Chapters:

Tafoya, N., & Del Vecchio, A. (2005). Back to the future: An examination of the Native American holocaust experience. In M.Goldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and Family Therapy (3rd ed., pp. 55-63). Guilford Press.

  • Articles Published in Periodicals

With long DOI

Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(3), 207–217. 

With short DOI (to use a short DOI, it is necessary to utilize the service on the homepage It will provide the short DOI).

Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(3), 207–217.

Without DOI:

Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 26-33.

  • Class Entities or Governmental Agencies

American Heartworm Society. (2020). Current Canine Guidelines for the Prevention, Diagnosis and Management of Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) Infection in Dogs.

National Cancer Institute. (2018). Facing Forward: Life after cancer treatment (NIH Publication No. 18-2424). U.S. Department of Health.

In preparing the text, the following rules must be observed:

Footnotes must be indicated with superscript Arabic numerals after the word, expression or sentence prompting the note. This numbering will be continuous and the notes will appear at the bottom of the respective page.