Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine <p>The Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine was launched in 1979 as the official scientific periodical of the Sociedade de Medicina Veterinária do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (SOMVERJ). </p> <p>The Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or their institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other legal purpose, without asking for prior permission from the editor or author, provided they are cited. The font is licensed by Creative Commons Attribution International CC-BY.</p> <p><strong>ISSN 0100-2430</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN-e 2527-2179.</strong></p> <p> </p> Sociedade de Medicina Veterinária do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. en-US Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 0100-2430 Clinical cases of infectious endocarditis in cats <p>Infectious endocarditis (IE) is a contagious polyposis ulcerative inflammation of the endocardium, accompanied by lesions of the heart valve apparatus and endothelium by various pathogenic and opportunistic pathogens. Mainly mitral and aortic valves are affected, less often - tricuspid valve. The purpose of this study was to report two cases of IE in cats. Due to the low prevalence of the disease in cats, there is no clear diagnostic algorithm, so the diagnostic search is complicated. In both cases, autonomic lesions of the heart valve apparatus were observed. In the first clinical case, we could hardly diagnose the disease because of its rapid progression: initial echocardiogram result was normal, but after 48 hours, the cat’s condition became much worse, and 18 hours later, it died. In the second case, histopathological examination confirmed an infectious inflammatory process of the endocardium and myocardium of unclear genesis. However, the presence of lower respiratory tract infection and the absence of additional laboratory tests, such as bacterial blood culture and PCR diagnosis, limited us in proposing a hypothesis about the origin and etiology of IE.</p> Tatiana Vladimirovna Sereda Marina Alekseevna Petrova Ilya Vitalievich Popov Igor Vitalievich Popov Sergey Nikolaevich Kartashov Alexey Mikhailovich Ermakov Copyright (c) 2022 Tatiana Vladimirovna Sereda, Marina Alekseevna Petrova, Ilya Vitalievich Popov, Igor Vitalievich Popov, Sergey Nikolaevich Kartashov, Alexey Mikhailovich Ermakov 2022-11-03 2022-11-03 44 e002322 e002322 10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm002322 Undetectable proviral DNA and viral RNA levels after raltegravir administration in two cats with natural feline leukemia virus infection <p>Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection was discovered over 50 years ago; however, the serious clinical changes associated with FeLV infection still have great importance in the diagnosis, prevention, and clinical management of symptomatic patients. Progressive infection with FeLV leads to a reduction in the patient’s life expectancy and quality of life. This report describes the use of an antiretroviral integrase inhibitor, raltegravir, in two cats with natural FeLV infection. Raltegravir was administered orally at a dose of 40 mg/ cat every 12 h in both cases. In case one, 13 weeks after starting raltegravir, RNA loads were undetectable, while proviral DNA loads were still detectable. In case two, proviral DNA loads were undetectable after 32 weeks of medication, while RNA loads were undetectable throughout the treatment. No adverse effects or laboratory test abnormalities were detected with the use of raltegravir in either patient. The patients are currently clinically healthy, still receiving the drug, and are under close observation. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the use of raltegravir in naturally infected FeLV-positive cats and its effects on circulating viral load. Moreover, the patients described here were followed-up for a longer period than those in previously reported cases.</p> Carla Regina Gomes Rodrigues Santos Isabela Torres Ferreira Renata Beranger Julia Possebon Santi Mariana Palha de Brito Jardim Heloisa Justen Moreira de Souza Copyright (c) 2022 Carla Regina Gomes Rodrigues Santos, Isabela Torres Ferreira, Renata Beranger, Julia Possebon Santi, Mariana Palha de Brito Jardim, Heloisa Justen Moreira de Souza 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 44 e003522 e003522 10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm003522 Antiparasitic treatment using herbs and spices: A review of the literature of the phytotherapy <p>This study sought to make a literature review of the medicinal plants <em>Origanum majorana</em>, <em>Origanum vulgare </em>L., <em>Thymus vulgaris </em>L., <em>Cuminum cynimum </em>L., and <em>Rosmarinus officinalis L</em>. with antiparasitic potential. Articles and theses were selected from the LILACS, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases, which comprised the period from 2000 to 2021 (22 years). In all, 49 studies were selected, and the majority were with the plant <em>Origanum vulgare </em>L. (oregano), followed by <em>Thymus vulgaris </em>L. (thyme). Twenty-five genera of parasites were detected, which were described being tested with phytotherapic. The nematode <em>Haemonchus </em>spp. was the most evaluated in these studies<em>, </em>followed by the parasite genera <em>Leishmania</em>, <em>Trichostrongylus</em>, and <em>Toxocara</em>. All plants showed antiparasitic effects, with more or less action, therefore with the potential to continue research in the search for biomolecules to control these parasites</p> Adriane Leites Strothmann Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne Gabriela de Almeida Capella Micaele Quintana de Moura Wesley Douglas da Silva Terto Caroline Maciel da Costa Natália Berne Pinheiro Copyright (c) 2022 Adriane Leites Strothmann, Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne, Gabriela de Almeida Capella , Micaele Quintana de Moura, Wesley Douglas da Silva Terto , Caroline Maciel da Costa, Natália Berne Pinheiro 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 44 e004722 e004722 10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm004722 Effects of total parenteral nutrition associated with glutamine, enteral fluid therapy with or without glutamine, and fluid therapy on the acid–base and electrolyte balance of horses starved after exploratory laparotomy <p>This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the total parenteral nutrition associated with glutamine, enteral fluid therapy with or without glutamine, and fluid therapy on the acid–base and electrolyte balance of horses starved after exploratory laparotomy. Sixteen healthy male and female adult horses of mixed breed, aged between 4 and 14 years, and having a mean body weight of 248.40 ± 2.28 kg and a body score index of 3–4 (scale of 1–5) were divided into four groups with four animals per group. After an adaptation period of 30 days, they were randomly divided into four experimental groups: enteral fluid therapy, enteral fluid therapy associated with glutamine, total parenteral nutrition associated with glutamine, and parenteral fluid therapy. The experiment was further divided into two phases: Phase 1 and Phase 2. In Phase 1, an exploratory laparotomy was performed, treatments were administered to the groups and the horses received no food or water other than those given to their respective groups. In Phase 2, the animals were re-fed. Each phase had a total duration of 144 h. Venous blood samples were collected every 24 h throughout the experimental period for blood gas and electrolyte analyses. The following parameters were evaluated: pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, total carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, base shift, anion gap, sodium, potassium, chloride, total calcium and magnesium. Completely randomized designs with a 4 × 7 factorial scheme (groups × harvest time) in Phase 1 and a 4 × 6 factorial scheme (groups × harvest time) in Phase 2 were used with four replications. All values were considered significant when p≤0.05 (95% probability). Blood pH, bicarbonate concentration, and base shift in the PARGL group decreased, indicating metabolic acidosis. Changes in the acid–base and electrolyte balance were more intense in the PARGL group than in the other groups. These results demonstrated the need to monitor blood gas and electrolyte balance in horses with food restriction under nutritional support or prolonged fluid therapy so that such changes are promptly corrected.</p> Ubiratan Pereira Melo Maristela Silveira Palhares Cíntia Ferreira Fabiola de Oliveira Paes Leme Valentim Arabicano Gheller Copyright (c) 2022 Ubiratan Pereira Melo, Maristela Silveira Palhares, Cíntia Ferreira, Fabiola de Oliveira Paes Leme, Valentim Arabicano Gheller 2022-10-14 2022-10-14 44 e003222 e003222 10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm003222 Survey on the recognition, attitudes, and experience of horse owners during episodes of equine colic in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil <p>Horse owners are crucial in recognizing colic because they are responsible for identifying the signs of colic and deciding whether to seek veterinary intervention. Common reasons for delayed response to clinical issues include lack of understanding or knowledge of the subject and difficulty in recognizing subtle clinical signs of abdominal pain. Examining horse owners’ basic knowledge of colic, their motivations, obstacles in seeking veterinary care, and their responses to the various clinical symptoms manifested during colic will identify current knowledge gaps and decision-making barriers. This study aimed to examine the experiences, recognition, and attitudes of horse owners during an episode of equine colic in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted using questionnaires in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The sample consisted of horse owners, competitors of any equestrian modality (provided that they were responsible for a horse at the time of the application of the questionnaire), or individuals who had previously owned a horse. There were differences related to the recognition and attitudes adopted towards colic in horses compared to the studies performed in other countries. The overall results of this study highlight the need for educational campaigns for horse owners to fill knowledge gaps about colic and the need for a clearer picture of colic, including what it is, the predisposing factors, and the range of symptoms. Additionally, this knowledge will equip horse owners to appropriately respond to these symptoms.</p> Mariana Henrique da Silveira Costa Paulo Roberto Medeiros Ubiratan Pereira Melo Renato Fernandes de Souza Gabriel Evangelista Lopes da Silva Cíntia Ferreira Daniel Barbosa de Assis Leanderson Paiva da Silva Emilson Lima de Brito Filho Copyright (c) 2022 Mariana Henrique da Silveira Costa, Paulo Roberto Medeiros, Ubiratan Pereira Melo, Renato Fernandes de Souza, Gabriel Evangelista Lopes da Silva, Cíntia Ferreira , Daniel Barbosa de Assis, Leanderson Paiva da Silva , Emilson Lima de Brito Filho 2022-10-14 2022-10-14 44 e003022 e003022 10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm003022