ABSTRACT. Mattos D.P.B.G., Lopes L.M.S., Verícimo M.A., Alvares T.S. & São Clemente S.C. Anisakidae larvae infection in five commercially important fish species from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [Infecção por larvas Anisakidae em cinco espécies de peixes comercialmente importantes do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.] Revista Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária, 36(4):375-379, 2014. Laboratório de Inspeção e Tecnologia de Pescado, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Vital Brazil, 64, Santa Rosa, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brasil. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org From March 2009 to March 2012, 213 teleostei fish were obtained from fish markets and fishermen from Niteroi and Cabo Frio municipalities, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The fish belonged to the species Micropogonias furnieri (107); Trichiurus lepturus (35); Centropomus undecimalis (22); Genypterus brasiliensis (18); Pagrus pagrus (18); Pomatomus saltatrix (7) e Merluccius hubbsi (6). Nematode larvae of Anisakidae were found in P. saltatrix (85.71%); T. lepturus (71.42%), P. pagrus (55.55%), G. brasiliensis (50.00%), and M. furnieri (0.93%). The prevalence rates raised as fish size increased. The highest mean intensity was observed in T. lepturus parasitized by Contracaecum sp. (30.50 larvae per fish). The sites of infection were only mesenteries, hepatic capsule and gastric serosa. No larvae were found in flesh, however, the high prevalence and intensity observed in some species, could represent a risk to human health by the larvae migration to flesh.