ABSTRACT. de Souza M.M.S., Coelho S.deM.deO., Coelho I.daS., Soares B.daS., da Motta C.C., de Melo D.A., Dubenczuk F.C., Santiago, G.S., Pimenta R.L., Marques V.F. & Alencar T.A. Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal Production: an Overview. [Resistência antimicrobiana em animais de produção: uma visão geral]. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3): 136-146, 2016. Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 7, Seropédica, RJ, 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: email@example.com
In the last two decades, antimicrobial resistance emerged as a puzzling multifactorial challenge. The role of the use of antimicrobials as growth promoters in animal production exerting a positive selection pressure which can favor the survival of resistant strains over susceptible ones and the spread of resistance genes is the subject of several researches throughout the world. Otherwise, defenders of the growth promoter use argue that antimicrobial abolishment will result in several disorders in production chain. Some researches support the idea that there are efficient and viable alternatives such as probiotics, enzymatic complex and natural products that can contributes to growth promotion without enhance antimicrobial resistance. Considering the importance of animal production to the social and economic development of Brazilian society and the crucially of this theme, this review presents some features of antimicrobial resistance in dairy milk and poultry industries, two major production systems. Also, it discusses the challenges faced by researchers in the establishment of an accurate resistance profile taking in account three important features: species identification, species diversity and virulence factors that may contribute to the observed resistance pattern, and additionally, the emergent role of Enterobacteriaceae in antimicrobial resistance in animal production environment.