Clinical and diagnostic imaging findings in a bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) with cervical spondylomyelopathy: A case report
PDF

Keywords

hemiparesis, tetraparesis, feline, wildlife.

How to Cite

Fugazzotto, D., Costa Devoti, C., Cassano, I. A., Berti, E., Brusati, M., & Zeira, O. (2022). Clinical and diagnostic imaging findings in a bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) with cervical spondylomyelopathy: A case report. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 44, e003921. https://doi.org/10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm003921

Abstract

An adult neutered male Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) presented with abnormal gait. Neurological examination showed poor left ambulatory hemiparesis, spontaneous proprioceptive deficit in the left anterior limb, and decreased flexor reflex in the forelimbs. The neurological symptoms suggested a caudal cervical spinal cord lesion. Pathological findings included increased cholinesterase and protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. Computed tomography examination revealed C2-C3 intervertebral disc herniation, C5-C6 intervertebral disc herniation associated with a reduction of the intervertebral space, and mild ventral dislocation of the C6 vertebra compared to C5. In addition, severe bilateral shoulder osteoarthritis and a hypoattenuating nodule in the left thyroid gland with an open etiology were observed. These findings were interpreted as indicating cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM). Treatment included analgesic and steroidal anti-inflammatory therapy as well as movement restriction. Follow-up at 4 weeks showed modest improvement. Thus, CSM should be included in the differential diagnosis of tigers with neurological cervical signs.

https://doi.org/10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm003921
PDF

References

Adamo, P. F. (2011). Cervical arthroplasty in two dogs with disk-associated cervical spondylomyelopathy. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 239(6), 808-817. http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.239.6.808. PMid:21916764.

Chambers, J. N., Oliver, J. E., & Bjorling, D. E. (1986). Update on ventral decompression for caudal cervical disk herniation in Doberman-Pinschers. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 22(6), 775-778.

Clair, S. S., Bell, G. R. (2007). Natural history of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Seminars in Spine Surgery, 19(1), 2-5. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.semss.2007.01.005.

Da Costa, R. C. (2010). Cervical spondylomyelopathy (wobbler syndrome) in dogs. Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice, 40(5), 881-913. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2010.06.003. PMid:20732597.

Da Costa, R. C., Parent, J., Dobson, H., Holmberg, D., & Partlow, G. (2006). Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and myelography in 18 Doberman pinscher dogs with cervical spondylomyelopathy. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 47(6), 523-531. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8261.2006.00180.x. PMid:17153059.

Da Costa, R. C., Parent, J. M., Holmberg, D. L., Sinclair, D., & Monteith, G. (2008). Outcome of medical and surgical treatment in dogs with cervical spondylomyelopathy: 104 cases (1988–2004). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 233(8), 1284-1290. http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.233.8.1284. PMid:18922055.

Da Costa, R. C., Echandi, R. L., & Beauchamp, D. (2012). Computed tomography myelographic findings in dogs with cervical spondylomyelopathy. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 53(1), 64-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1740- 8261.2011.01869.x. PMid:22093094.

De Decker, S., da Costa, R. C., Volk, H. A., & Van Ham, L. M. L. (2012). Current insights and controversies in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of disc‐associated cervical spondylomyelopathy in dogs. The Veterinary Record, 171(21), 531-537. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.e7952. PMid:23180710.

De Decker, S., Warner, A. S., & Volk, H. A. (2017). Prevalence and breed predisposition for thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease in cats. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 19(4), 419-423. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X16630358. PMid:26868632.

De Risio, L., Muñana, K., Murray, M., Olby, N., Sharp, N. J., & Cuddon, P. (2002). Dorsal laminectomy for caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy: Postoperative recovery and long‐term follow‐up in 20 dogs. Veterinary Surgery, 31(5), 418-427. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/jvet.2002.34673. PMid:12209412.

Debreuque, M., Valin, I., Prata, D., De Fornel, P., & Thibaud, J. L. (2020). Case report: intramedullary intervertebral disk extrusion in a cat: Clinical, computed tomographic, high-field magnetic resonance imaging, and outcome findings. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 7, 742. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.583892. PMid:33134365.

Dewey, C. W., & Da Costa, R. C. (2015). Practical guide to canine and feline neurology (3rd ed.) John Wiley & Sons.

Farooq, U., Sajjad, S., Anwar, M., & Khan, B. N. (2012). Serum chemistry variables of Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) kept in various forms of captivity. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 32(2), 283-285. http://www.pvj.com.pk/pdf-files/32_2/283-285.pdf

Galloway, D. S., Coke, R. L., Rochat, M. C., Radinsky, M. A., Hoover, J. P., Carpenter, J. W., Hubbard, J. J., & Ketz-Riley, C. J. (2002). Spinal compression due to atlantal vertebral malformation in two African lions (Panthera leo). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 33(3), 249-255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/1042-7260(2002)033[0249:SCDTAV]2.0.CO;2. PMid:12462492.

Jaggy, A., & Platt, S. R. (2010). Small animal neurology: An illustrated text. Schlütersche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG.

Jeffery, N. D. (1995). Handbook of small animal spinal surgery. WB Saunders.

Kolmstetter, C., Munson, L., & Ramsay, E. C. (2000). Degenerative spinal disease in large felids. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 31(1), 15-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/1042-7260(2000)031[0015:DSDILF]2.0.CO;2. PMid:10884118.

Lambrechts, N. E., & Berry, W. L. (2000). Caudal cervical disc protrusion in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 31(3), 404-407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/1042-7260(2000)031[0404:CCD PIA]2.0.CO;2. PMid:11237151.

Liu, E., Ma, L., You, D., Yang, C., Hu, Y., Xu, H., Liu, D., & Wang, Y. (2021). Haematological and biochemical parameters of captive siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) from the Heilongjiang Province, China. Veterinary Medicine and Science, 7(3), 1015-1022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/vms3.395. PMid:33314784.

Martin-Vaquero, P., da Costa, R. C., Allen, M. J., Moore, S. A., Keirsey, J. K., & Green, K. B. (2015). Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in canine cervical spondylomyelopathy. Spine, 40(9), 601-612. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000000831. PMid:26030213.

Martin-Vaquero, P., da Costa, R. C., & Lima, C. G. D. (2014). Cervical spondylomyelopathy in Great Danes: A magnetic resonance imaging morphometric study. Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997), 201(1), 64-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.04.011. PMid:24888675.

Montali, R. J., Bush, M., Sauer, R. M., Gray, C. W., & Xanten Jr, W. A. (1974). Spinal ataxia in zebras. Comparison with the wobbler syndrome of horses. Veterinary Pathology, 11(1), 68-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030098587401100108. PMid:4432358.

Nye, C., Hostnik, E., Parker, E., Wittum, T., Jones, S., Moore, S., Cook, L., & da Costa, R. C. (2020). Long‐term clinical and magnetic resonance imaging follow‐up of dogs with osseous‐associated cervical spondylomyelopathy. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 34(5), 2012-2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15866. PMid:32794615.

Scaglione, F. E., Schröder, C., Degiorgi, G., Zeira, O., & Bollo, E. (2010). Cranial malformations in related white lions (Panthera leo krugeri). Veterinary Pathology, 47(6), 1095-1099. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300985810382518. PMid:20826844.

Senneca, C., Garcia, G., Rosenberg, J. F., Heard, D., Porter, E., Olivera, L., & Farina, L. (2018). Acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusion causing paraplegia in a siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 49(1), 189-192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2017-0079R1.1. PMid:29517456.

Sharp, N. I. H., Wheeler, S. J., & Cofone, M. (1992). Radiological evaluation of ‘wobbler’syndrome‐caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy. The Journal of Small Animal Practice, 33(10), 491-499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5827.1992.tb01032.x.

Shrivastav, A. B., & Singh, K. P. (2012). Tigers blood: Haematological and biochemical studies. In T. E. Moschandreou (Ed.), Blood cell - An overview of studies in hematology (pp. 229-242). IntechOpen. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/50360.

Talekar, K., Poplawski, M., Hegde, R., Cox, M., & Flanders, A. (2016). Imaging of spinal cord injury: Acute cervical spinal cord injury, cervical spondylotic myelopathy, and cord herniation. Seminars in ultrasound, CT, and MR, 37(5), 431-447. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.sult.2016.05.007. PMid:27616315.

Wheeler, S. J., & Sharp, N. J. (1994). Small animal spinal disorders, diagnosis and surgery. Mosby-Wolfe Publishers.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2022 Domenico Fugazzotto, Chiara Costa Devoti, Ilaria Anna Cassano, Elisa Berti, Marta Brusati, Offer Zeira