Multimodal therapy for treatment of equine back pain: a report of 15 cases
PDF

Keywords

dynamic mobilization exercises, ozone, platelet-rich plasma, shoeing, therapeutic ultrasound. exercícios de mobilização dinâmica, ozônio, plasma rico em plaquetas, ferrageamento, ultrassom terapêutico

How to Cite

de Melo1, U. P., & Ferreira, C. (2021). Multimodal therapy for treatment of equine back pain: a report of 15 cases . Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 43(1), e003321. https://doi.org/10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm003321

Abstract

Back pain and diseases of the spine are considered significant problems in equine sports and veterinary medicine. This article reports a multimodal approach to the treatment of equine back pain using ozonized platelet rich plasma (PRP), dynamic mobilization exercises, and therapeutic shoeing in 15 horses involved in the vaquejada discipline. Fifteen American Quarter Horses of both sexes engaged in vaquejada in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, with a mean age of 8.61 ± 1.73 years were examined at a training center for lower performance diagnostics or back pain. A complete clinical examination was performed on all horses at rest to determine the general conformation and alterations in posture, symmetry, and curvature of the spine. The horses were examined while walking and trotting in straight lines and circles to determine the presence of lameness and/or gait asymmetry. Spinal abnormalities on clinical examination were classified on a scale of 0 to 5 based on the following parameters: degree of response to pain from back palpation, hypertonicity of the back muscles, stiffness of the thoracolumbar joint, and physical dysfunction. After physical examination, ultrasound was performed to identify the cause of the thoracolumbar pain. The therapeutic protocol consisted of the intralesional application of ozonized PRP combined with therapeutic ultrasound, dynamic mobilization exercises, and therapeutic shoeing. All treated animals returned to sports activities at a higher level of performance than at the beginning of the treatment. Six months after treatment, telephone contact was made with the owner or trainer to determine if the back pain had relapsed. None of the animals relapsed during this period, and they participated in vaquejada normally

https://doi.org/10.29374/2527-2179.bjvm003321
PDF

References

Adair, H. S., & Levine, D. (2019). Effects of 1-MHz ultrasound on epaxial muscle temperature in horses. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 6, 177. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00177. PMid:31245392.

Alves, A. L. G., Fonseca, B. P. A., Thomassian, A., Nicoletti, J. L. M., Hussni, C. A., & Silveira, A. B. (2007). Lombalgia em eqüinos. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, 44(3), 191-199. http://dx.doi.org/10.11606/issn.1678-4456.bjvras.2007.26638.

Barbosa, L. T., Rodrigues, C. F. S., Andrade, R. R., & Barbosa, F. T. (2020). The effectiveness of percutaneous injections of ozonotherapy in low back pain. Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, 66(8), 1146-1151. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1590/1806-9282.66.8.1146. PMid:32935812.

Barreto, G. A., Negrucci, M. A., & Pessinatti, B. D. (2021). A coluna toracolombar do cavalo atleta: Revisão. Pubvet, 15(6), a844. http://dx.doi.org/10.31533/pubvet.v15n06a844.1-8.

Clayton, H. M. (2012). Equine back pain reviewed from a motor control perspective. Comparative Exercise Physiology, 8(3), 145-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.3920/CEP12023.

Cousty, M., Retureau, C., Tricaud, C., Geffroy, O., & Caure, S. (2010). Location of radiological lesions of the thoracolumbar column in French trotters with and without signs of back pain. The Veterinary Record, 166(2), 41-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.c70. PMid:20064977.

Dantas, F. T. D. R., Duarte, M. A., Marins, J. C. B., & Fonseca, B. P. A. (2019). Thermographic assessment of saddles used in Mangalarga Marchador horses. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 71(4), 1165-1170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-4162-10367.

Dau, S. L., Noro, M., Pretto, N., Alves, L. G., & Alves, L. P. (2015). Hoof balance in Criollo horses used for roping in the north of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 37(4), 366-370.

Fantini, P., & Palhares, M. S. (2011). Lombalgia em equinos. Acta Veterinaria Brasilica, 5(4), 359-363.

Fantini, P., Palhares, M. S., Prades, M., Macedo, V. C., Silva Filho, J. M., Leme, F. O. P., & Carmona, J. U. (2016). Criopreservação do plasma rico em plaquetas de equinos. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 68(1), 73-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-4162-8078.

Figueiredo, M. A. F., Alves, G. E. S., Michel, A. F. R. M., Lima, A. E., Wenceslau, A. A., Ferreira, M. L., Clark, R. M. O., & Ayres, M. C. C. (2016). Effect of platelet rich plasma therapy in the repair of experimental lesions of the suspensory ligament in horses. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 38(Suppl. 1), 85-92. http://dx.doi. org/10.2430/00000000000000.

Fonseca, B. P. A., Alves, A. L. G., Nicoletti, J. L. M., Thomassian, A., Hussni, C. A., & Mikail, S. (2006). Thermography and ultrasonography in back pain diagnosis of equine athletes. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 26(11), 507-516. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2006.09.007.

Frick, A. (2010). Stretching exercises for horses: are they effective? Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 30(1), 50-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2009.12.001.

Gigante, A., Del Torto, M., Manzotti, S., Cianforlini, M., Busilacchi, A., Davidson, P. A., Greco, F., & Mattioli-Belmonte, M. (2012). Platelet rich fibrin matrix effects on skeletal muscle lesions: An experimental study. Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents, 26(3), 475-484. PMid:23034267.

Hamid, M. S., Yusof, A., & Mohamed Ali, M. R. (2014). Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for acute muscle injury: a systematic review. PLoS One, 9(2), e90538. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090538. PMid:24587389.

Hammond, J. W., Hinton, R. Y., Curl, L. A., Muriel, J. M., & Lovering, R. M. (2009). Use of autologous platelet-rich plasma to treat muscle strain injuries. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 37(6), 1135-1142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546508330974. PMid:19282509.

Haussler, K. H. (2015). Managing back pain. In: Sprayberry, K. A., Robinson, N.E. (Eds.), Robinson’s current therapy in equine medicine (pp. 92-96). Missouri: Elsevier Saunders. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-4557-4555-5.00022-4.

Jaramillo, F. M., Vendruscolo, C. P., Fülber, J., Seidel, S. R. T., Barbosa, A. P., & Baccarin, R. Y. A. (2020). Effects of transrectal medicinal ozone in horses - clinical and laboratory aspects. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 72(1), 56-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-4162-11155.

Kilmartin, D. R. (2015). Equine orthopaedic balance: the influence of foot balance on the biomechanics of the upper body. http://equineoptions.com.au/images/EOB-Rowan-Kilmartin.pdf

Mayaki, A. M., Abdul Razak, I. S., Adzahan, N. M., Mazlan, M., & Rasedee, A. (2020). Clinical assessment and grading of back pain in horses. Journal of Veterinary Science (Suwon-si, Korea), 21(6), e82. http://dx.doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2020.21.e82. PMid:33263229.

Melo, U. P., & Ferreira, C. (2020). Lombalgia em equinos de vaquejada: Achados clínicos, ultrasonográficos e resultados terapêuticos de 25 casos. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária, 27(4), 193-199. http://dx.doi.org/10.4322/rbcv.2020.033.

Melo, U. P., Ferreira, C., & Borges, K. D. A. (2008). Osteoartrite társica eqüina. A Hora Veterinária, 162, 45-49.

Melo, U. P., Ferreira, C., Santiago, R. M. F. W., Palhares, M. S., & Maranhão, R. P. A. (2006). Equilíbrio do casco eqüino. Ciência Animal Brasileira, 7(4), 389-398.

Melo, U. P., Santiago, R. M. F. W., Barrêto Júnior, R. A., Ferreira, C., Bezerra, M. B., & Palhares, M. S. (2011). Biometria e alterações do equilíbrio podal em equinos utilizados em vaquejada. Acta Veterinaria Brasilica, 5(4), 368-375.

Mendes, A. B., Figueiró, G. M., Lucas, F. A., & Barioni, G. (2013). Lombalgia equina: Diagnóstico e tratamento. Pubvet, 7(17), 1583. http://dx.doi.org/10.22256/pubvet.v7n17.1583.

Mikail, S., & Pedro, C. R. (2005). Fisioterapia veterinária (pp. 50-62). São Paulo: Manole.

Oliveira, K., Clayton, H. M., & Santos Harada, É. (2020). Gymnastic training of hippotherapy horses benefits gait quality when ridden by riders with different body weights. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 94, 103248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2020.103248. PMid:33077073.

Oliveira, K., Soutello, R. V. G., Fonseca, R., Costa, C., Meirelles, P. R. L., Fachiolli, D. F., & Clayton, H. M. (2015). Gymnastic training and dynamic mobilization exercises improve stride quality and increase epaxial muscle size in therapy horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 35(11-12), 888-893. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2015.08.006.

Oliveira, K., Soutello, R. V. G., Fonseca, R., Lopes, A. M., Santos, P. C. S., Santos, J. M. F., Massarelli, A. C., Rodrigues, J. S., & Vera, J. H. S. (2014). Biometria por ultrassonografia da musculatura epaxial e pélvica em equinos treinados com rédea Pessoa. Ciência Rural, 44(11), 2045-2051. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-8478cr20130604.

Pires, N. R., Miranda, S., Costa, M. F. M., Ramos, M. T., Bernardes, C., Alencar, N. X., & Lessa, D. A. B. (2021). Effect of intrabronchial platelet rich plasma on the exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage endoscopic score in thoroughbred racehorses using furosemide: a preliminary study. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 73(3), 605-612. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-4162-12212.

Quarteiro, M. L., Tognini, J. R. F., Oliveira, E. L. F., & Silveira, I. (2015). O efeito do plasma rico em plaquetas no reparo de lesões musculares em ratos. Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia, 50(5), 586-595. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rbo.2014.09.002. PMid:26535207.

Riccio, B., Fraschetto, C., Villanueva, J., Cantatore, F., & Bertuglia, A. (2018). Two Multicenter Surveys on Equine Back-Pain 10 Years a Part. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 5, 195. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00195. PMid:30191152.

Ridgway, K., & Harman, J. (1999). Equine back rehabilitation. The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice, 15(1), 263-280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-0739(17)30176-1. PMid:10218254.

Rodrigues, P. G., Freitas, L. M.D., Oliveira, K., Martins, C. O. D., Silva, C. M., Oliveira, C. G., Lima Júnior, J. W. R., & Velarde, J. M. D. S. (2021). Thermal and behavioral response of horses submitted to functional exercises and acupuncture. Ciência Rural, 52(2), e20201046. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-8478cr20201046.

Vendruscolo, C. P., Watanabe, M. J., Maia, L., Carvalho, A. M., & Alves, A. L. G. (2012). Plasma rico em plaquetas: Uma nova perspectiva terapêutica para medicina equina. Veterinária e Zootecnia, 19(1), 33-43.

Wright-Carpenter, T., Opolon, P., Appell, H. J., Meijer, H., Wehling, P., & Mir, L. M. (2004). Treatment of muscle injuries by local administration of autologous conditioned serum: Animal experiments using a muscle contusion model. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 25(8), 582-587. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-821303. PMid:15532000.

Yamada, A. L. M., Carvalho, A. M., Oliveira, P. G. G., Felisbino, S. L., Queiroz, D. L., Watanabe, M. J., Hussni, C. A., & Alves, A. L. G. (2012). Plasma rico em plaquetas no tratamento de lesões condrais articulares induzidas experimentalmente em equinos: Avaliação clínica, macroscópica, histológica e histoquímica. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 64(2), 323-332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-09352012000200011.

Yeprem, L., Ellialtioglu, A., & Baeza-Noci, J. (2018). The efficacy of intra-articular PRP, ozone and ozone+PRP injections in patients with osteoarthritis. Journal of Ozone Therapy, 2(3). http://dx.doi.org/10.7203/jo3t.2.3.2018.10904.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2021 Ubiratan Pereira de Melo1, Cintia Ferreira