Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 2021-04-09T17:43:29-03:00 Carlos Wilson Gomes Lopes Open Journal Systems <pre id="tw-target-text" class="tw-data-text tw-text-large XcVN5d tw-ta" dir="ltr" data-placeholder="Tradução"><span lang="en">The Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine (BJVM) is the official journal of the Society of Veterinary Medicine of Rio de Janeiro (Somverj). As an editorial policy, it publishes original scientific articles, reviews (without invitation from the Editor) and case reports. In all fields of Veterinary Medicine.</span></pre> <pre id="tw-target-text" class="tw-data-text tw-ta tw-text-small" dir="ltr" data-placeholder="Tradução" data-fulltext=""><span lang="en"> </span></pre> Retrospective study of retroviruses by immunoenzymatic test on cats in Grande Vitória (ES, Brazil) and associated neoplasms 2020-11-06T16:24:05-03:00 Isabella Oliveira Almeida Mariana Arnoni Alves da Silva Bruna Voltolin de Sena Jeanne Saraiva da Paz Tamara de Almeida Jaretta Priscila Camargo Granadeiro Faria Rodrigo dos Santos Horta <p>Retroviruses are among the leading causes of death in domestic cats. Retroviruses associate with the host cell in a persistent and permanent way, leading to diverse clinical conditions. The feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is the most pathogenic retrovirus with the potential to cause both degenerative diseases and immunosuppression, as well as proliferative diseases, as its association with the cell may lead to a direct oncogenic effect. The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), in turn, can lead to the classic immunodeficiency syndrome, usually has a chronic, less aggressive course and has no direct oncogenic effect. The use of vaccines and control measures has resulted in a decrease in the prevalence of FeLV in the United States of America (USA) and Europe, however, in Brazil, statistics show prevalence rates above 50%. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of feline retroviruses, by immunoenzymatic assay testing, in the region of Grande Vitória, in Espírito Santo and also point out the frequency of neoplasms in these cats. A total of 388 cats were retrospectively evaluated (2014-2016). The prevalence of FIV was 2.3% and FeLV was 33.7%. Neoplasms were identified in the three cats seropositive for FIV and FeLV and in three cats infected only with FIV. Neoplasms were also found in 26.6% of cats that were seropositive only for FeLV, especially mediastinal lymphoma. The high prevalence of FeLV demonstrated in this study highlights the need for establishing effective control measures, with emphasis on vaccination.</p> 2021-04-03T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Isabella Oliveira Almeida, Mariana Arnoni Alves da Silva, Bruna Voltolin de Sena, Jeanne Saraiva da Paz, Tamara de Almeida Jaretta, Priscila Camargo Granadeiro Faria, Rodrigo dos Santos Horta Zoonotic parasites in wild animals such as carnivores and primates that are traded illegally in Brazil 2020-11-06T21:17:31-03:00 Victor Fernando Victor Fernando Rafael Antonio do Nascimento Ramos Alessio Giannelli Sofia Cerqueira Schettino André Beal Galina Jéssica Cardoso Pessoa de Oliveira Patrícia Oliveira Meira-Santos Leucio Camara Alves <p> Brazil accounts for around 20% of all animal species, but these are constantly threatened by illegal anthropic activities. Unfortunately, animal dealers are totally unaware of the sanitary risks among wild animals, or that occurrences of parasites in these animals are bioindicators for their current sanitary status within the ecosystem in which they live. This status is an important parameter with regard to assessing the spreading of pathogens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a survey of zoonotic parasites in carnivores and non-human primates that are illegally traded in Brazil. Between June 2016 and July 2017, 43 wild animals (20 carnivores and 23 non-human primates) were presented at the Wild Animal Screening Center of Sergipe (CETAS/SE). Fecal and blood samples were obtained and analyzed to detect occurrences of pathogens of medical and veterinary importance, such as <em>Cryptosporidium </em>spp., <em>Giardia </em>spp., <em>Dirofilaria immitis</em>, <em>Leishmania infantum, Leishmania braziliensis, Toxoplasma gondii</em>, <em>Trypanosoma cruzi </em>and gastrointestinal helminths. Out of all the animals analyzed, 55.8% (24/43) were found to be positive for at least one parasite species, i.e. 41.7% and 58.3% of the carnivores and non-human primates, respectively. However, all the animals were negative for <em>D. immitis</em>, <em>L. braziliensis </em>and <em>T. cruzi</em>. These findings demonstrate that illegally traded wild animals may represent a risk to public health because of absence of sanitary control during their transportation. Therefore, preventive measures might be employed to avoid infection of these animals and people in close contact with them.</p> 2021-03-18T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Leucio Camara Alves, Victor, Rafael, Alessio, Sofia, Andre, Jéssica , Patricia In vitro evaluation of the acaricidal activity of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) essential oil and eugenol against non-fed larvae of Rhipicephalus sanguineus 2021-04-06T11:20:48-03:00 Monique Moraes Lambert Douglas Siqueira de Almeida Chaves Barbara Rauta de Avelar Diefrey Ribeiro Campos Debora Azevedo Borges Leandra Oliveira Moreira Geraldo Augusto Pereira Yara Peluso Cid Fabio Barbour Scott Katherina Coumendouros <p>&nbsp;Plant extracts and essential oils have been showing potential for use as acaricides. <em>Rhipicephalus sanguineus</em>, the brown tick, mainly parasitizes dogs and is responsible for pathogens transmission. The insecticidal and acaricidal activity of the essential oil (EO) of <em>Syzygium aromaticum </em>and eugenol have already been reported, however the activity against <em>R. sanguineus </em>is lacked. To evaluate the acaricidal activity of <em>S</em>. <em>aromaticum </em>EO and eugenol against larvae of <em>R. sanguineus</em>, <em>in vitro </em>assays were performed using the larval immersion test. Bioassays were performed in duplicate, within the concentration range of 0.078 to 40 mg.mL-1. Mortality assessment was performed after 24 hours. Mortality above 90% was achieved through using the EO and eugenol at concentrations greater than 5 and 10 mg.mL-1, respectively. The LC50 values of 1.4 and 3.3 mg.mL-1 for eugenol and <em>S</em>. <em>aromaticum </em>EO, respectively, while the LC90 values found for eugenol and <em>S</em>. <em>aromaticum </em>EO were, respectively, 6.4 and 6.7 mg.mL-1 were calculated. These compounds present activity against <em>R. sanguineus </em>larvae and demonstrate potential for use as acaricides.</p> 2021-04-06T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Monique Moraes Lambert, Douglas Siqueira de Almeida Chaves, Barbara Rauta de Avelar, Diefrey Ribeiro Campos, Debora Azevedo Borges, Leandra Oliveira Moreira, Geraldo Augusto Pereira, Yara Peluso Cid2, Fabio Barbour Scott, Katherina Coumendouros Serological evidence of Eastern equine encephalitis circulation in equids in Pará state, Brazil 2021-03-31T15:10:58-03:00 Josynélia do Socorro da Silva Sena Nunes Lívia Medeiros Neves Casseb Ricardo José de Paula Sousa Guimarães Wilgner Duarte Magalhães Reis Bruno de Cássio Veloso de Barros Milene Silveira Ferreira Jannifer Oliveira Chiang Helder Henrique Costa Pinheiro Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos Ana Cecília Ribeiro Cruz <p>Serum samples from 89 equids were analyzed (75 horses, 9 donkeys, and 5 mules) from the municipality of Viseu, Pará state, Brazil. Samples were collected in November 2014 and August 2015. The antibody prevalence against the following alphaviruses was estimated: Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Mucambo virus, and Mayaro virus. Seroprevalence was determined by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) technique. Sera that exhibited HI antibodies with heterotypic reactions for the analyzed viruses were subjected to the 90% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90). The HI prevalence of monotypic reactions to EEEV was 7.9%, and that of WEEV was 1.1%, as confirmed by PRNT90. Viral isolation attempts were negative for all tested blood samples. Our results suggest the circulation of equine encephalitis complex viruses. Future studies should evaluate the possible involvement of arthropod hosts and residents in the viral transmission in the study area.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Josynélia do Socorro da Silva Sena Nunes, Lívia Medeiros Neves Casseb, Ricardo José de Paula Sousa Guimarães, Wilgner Duarte Magalhães Reis, Bruno de Cássio Veloso de Barros, Milene Silveira Ferreira, Jannifer Oliveira Chiang, Helder Henrique Costa Pinheiro, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos, Ana Cecília Ribeiro Cruz Cancer diagnosis and treatment of children and dogs: coping strategies used by parents and owners in teaching hospitals 2021-03-23T14:29:18-03:00 Luciane Cristina Vieira Emerson Antonio Contesini José Roberto Goldim <p>This paper aimed to gain insight into and to compare various strategies deployed by parents and owners for coping with both cancer diagnosis and corresponding treatment for both children and dogs. Cross-sectional study of the data collected from parents of children with cancer on chemotherapy at the In-Patient Unit of the Pediatric Oncology Service at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre and owners of dogs with cancer on chemotherapy at the Oncology Unit of Veterinary Clinics Hospital at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. A semistructured interview was conducted with the 44 subjects on the impact of the diagnosis and treatment. They answered a questionnaire adapted from the Coping Strategies Inventory by Folkman and Lazarus. Data were analyzed using mixed methods, that is, statistical analysis and the content analysis proposed by Bardin. The Inventory scales were analyzed to compare parents and owners. Three of the eight scales showed statistically significant differences: responsibility acceptance (P=0.002), escape-avoidance (P=0.001) and positive reappraisal (P=0.005). The main differences were found in the scales related to emotion, because parents showed both guilt and need to find a way to turn that situation into something positive. The main goal of both parents and owners was patient care and treatment. They set a course of action and pursued it, in spite of the suffering brought by the situation. The ability to reassess the situation positively was observed in both groups, as their discourse after coping with was that of who has learned to appreciate life more.</p> 2021-03-23T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Luciane Cristina Vieira, Emerson Antonio Contesini, José Roberto Goldim Selection of Metarhizium spp. Brazilian isolates to control Rhipicephalus microplus ticks: in vitro virulence tests and conidiogenesis 2021-02-26T12:53:59-03:00 Giselle Arieiro Jones Wendell Marcelo de Souza Perinotto Mariana Guedes Camargo Patrícia Silva Golo Vania Rita Elias Pinheiro Bittencourt <p>This study aimed to select <em>Metarhizium </em>spp. isolates to control <em>Rhipicephalus microplus </em>ticks by analyzing their <em>in vitro </em>virulence against <em>R. microplus </em>eggs, larvae, and engorged females as well as their ability to produce aerial conidia on potato dextrose agar (PDA). After the treatment of <em>R. microplus </em>eggs with the highest fungal concentration (108, most of the eleven tested isolates reduced the larval hatching compared to the control group, except <em>M. anisopliae </em>s.l. ARSEF 2211 and ARSEF 3641. <em>M. anisopliae </em>s.l. isolates ARSEF 729, ARSEF 760, ARSEF 929, and ARSEF 3643 exhibited the best results in the egg bioassay. In the bioassay with larvae, the entomopathogenic fungal isolates yielded average larval mortality ranging from 0.1% to 98.9% and from 23.9% to 99.9% five and fifteen days after the treatment, respectively. ARSEF 552, ARSEF 729, ARSEF 929, and ARSEF 3643 yielded the highest larval mortality. Analysis of the bioassay with <em>R. microplus </em>engorged females found that the different isolates negatively impacted the egg mass weight, larval hatching percent, egg production index, and nutritional index. The percent of tick control ranged from 5.32% to 70.83%, and the best tick control rates were caused by <em>M. anisopliae </em>s.l. ARSEF 3643 (70.83%), ARSEF 3641 (62.87%), and ARSEF 729 (64.27%). The highest conidiogenesis on PDA was observed for <em>M. anisopliae </em>s.l. ARSEF 3641 and <em>M. pingshaense </em>ARSEF 552. The isolates ARSEF 729 and ARSEF 3643 are considered promising candidates for field applications against <em>R. microplus </em>ticks.</p> 2021-03-11T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Giselle Arieiro Jones, Wendell Marcelo de Souza Perinotto, Mariana Guedes Camargo, Patrícia Silva Golo, Vania Rita Elias Pinheiro Bittencourt Association of radioactivity of the monazite sands of the beaches of the Guarapari city with the presence of parasites of zoonotic potential 2021-02-25T19:36:54-03:00 Gabriel Ricardo de Souza Lima Maria Larissa Bitencourt Vidal Ygor Henrique da Silva André Garcia Oliveira Isabella Vilhena Freire Martins Daniel Calheiros Silva <p>The city of Guarapari, known as “Healthy City”, has as its main tourist attraction radioactive sands known as monazite sands. There are many studies aimed at quantifying radiation, but little is known about an influence of radiation levels on the life cycle of parasites with zoonotic potential, since many owners take their animals to beaches facilitating a maintenance of their cycle. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the association of the sand radiation of the beaches of the municipality of Guarapari and the presence of eggs and larvae of zoonotic potential parasites. To determine the influence of the radiation on the parasites, sand and faeces samples were collected from the beaches of Praia do Morro, Areia Preta, Castanheiras, Setiba and Santa Mônica, and how to analyze, use the simple centrifugal-flotation technique. The beaches of the present study were classified as low, medium and high radioactivity according to the dose limits that a human being can receive. The samples of sand and faeces were grouped according to a classification of the beaches where they were collected as samples. After obtaining the result, a Chi-square statistical test was performed at a significance level of 95% to evaluate an association between radiation classes and parasite presence. In general, monazitic sands have an influence on the maintenance of the cycle of zoonotic parasites found in beach sand, their correlation being inversely proportional.</p> 2021-03-11T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Gabriel Ricardo de Souza Lima, Maria Larissa Bitencourt Vidal, Ygor Henrique da Silva, André Garcia Oliveira, Isabella Vilhena Freire Martins, Daniel Calheiros Silva Presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in lamb meat commercialized in Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil 2020-11-12T12:01:46-03:00 Vanessa Mendonça Soares Aryele Nunes da Cruz Encide Sampaio Emanoelli Aparecida Rodrigues dos Santos Leonardo Ereno Tadielo Juliano Gonçalves Pereira <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary quality of lamb meat sold in the city of Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul (RS) by counting the indicator microorganisms and detecting pathogens such as <em>Salmonella</em> spp. and <em>Listeria</em> <em>monocytogenes</em>. Thirty-nine lamb meat samples were collected from 10 commercial establishments in Uruguaiana. The samples were subjected to counts of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms and enterobacteria, and to the detection of <em>Salmonella</em> spp. and <em>L. monocytogenes</em>, all following standard methods. The average counts of mesophilic microorganisms and enterobacteria were 6.08 log CFU/g (minimum 4.07 and max 6.87) and 4.73 log CFU/g (minimum 0 and max 5.88), respectively. For pathogens, <em>L. monocytogenes</em> was isolated from five samples (12.82%), with three samples in the same location. Only two samples (5.13%) were positive for <em>Salmonella</em> spp. The results demonstrated unsatisfactory hygienic-sanitary conditions because high counts of pathogens such as <em>Salmonella</em> spp. and <em>L. monocytogenes</em>. The counts of enterobacteria showed poor hygiene conditions during the various stages of production. The results also indicated fecal contamination, as <em>Salmonella</em> spp. and <em>L. monocytogenes</em> are present in the intestinal tract of both humans and animals. The high count of mesophilic microorganisms obtained could be owing to contaminated raw material or unsatisfactory processing, including unsanitary conditions and the inappropriate use of binomial time/temperature during storage.</p> 2021-03-06T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Vanessa Mendonça Soares, Aryele Nunes da Cruz Encide Sampaio, Emanoelli Aparecida Rodrigues dos Santos, Leonardo Ereno Tadielo, Juliano Gonçalves Pereira Occurrence of zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of rodents and the risk of human infection in different biomes of Brazil 2020-11-16T09:55:37-03:00 Victor Fernando Santan Lima Rafael Antonio do Nascimento Ramos Alessio Giannelli Wagner Wesley Araújo Andrade Irma Yaneth Torres López Ingrid Carla do Nascimento Ramos Laura Rinaldi Giuseppe Cringoli Leucio Camara Alves <p>Rodents are synanthropic mammals adapted to several ecosystems, where they can contribute to the transmission of zoonotic pathogens, including gastrointestinal parasites. The aim of this study was to study the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites from rodents and discuss the risk of transmission to humans. Fecal samples (n = 110) from different rodent species, namely, <em>Cerradomys subflavus </em>(n = 4), <em>Mus musculus </em>(n = 14), <em>Rattus norvegicus </em>(n = 80), <em>Rattus rattus </em>(n = 8) and <em>Thrichomys apereoides </em>(n = 4), were analyzed using the FLOTAC technique. Of the samples examined, 73.6% (81/110) tested positive for at least one gastrointestinal parasite. The most commonly identified parasites were <em>Aspiculuris </em>sp., <em>Hymenolepis nana</em>, <em>Moniliformis </em>sp., <em>Syphacia </em>sp., <em>Strongyloides </em>spp., <em>Taenia </em>spp<em>., </em>and <em>Trichuris </em>spp. eggs, <em>Angiostrongylus cantonensis </em>larvae and <em>Entamoeba </em>spp. cysts. The findings of this study demonstrate that rodents living in different Brazilian biomes are parasitized by a wide range of parasites, including some of public health concern. Therefore, the proximity of rodents to human settlements may represent a tangible risk of infection for people living in these areas.</p> 2021-03-23T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Victor, Rafael, Alessio, Wagner, Irma, Ingrid, Laura, Giuseppe, Leucio Camara Alves Molecular characterization and genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus isolates of dairy production farms in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 2021-04-09T17:43:29-03:00 Bianca da Silva Soares Cássia Couto da Motta Nicolle Lima Barbieri Dayanne Araújo de Melo Marisol Alvim Gomez Tatiani Abreu de Alencar Irene da Silva Coelho Shana de Mattos de Oliveira Coelho Catherine Mary Logue Miliane Moreira Soares de Souza <p><em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>is an important pathogen involved in subclinical bovine mastitis, causing high economic losses for the dairy industry. The successful persistence of this pathogen in the host occurs due to a series of factors associated with colonization ability and the acquisition of virulence factors. This bacterial species carries genetic heterogeneity, and genetically diverse strains characterize the population. Analysis of the genetic variation is an important tool for epidemiological studies. For this study, <em>S. aureus </em>strains were randomly selected by molecular profiling. All strains were originated from the milk of cows of subclinical mastitis on farms in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Strains of <em>S. aureus </em>were profiled using virulence gene analysis profiles, <em>agr </em>and <em>spa </em>typing, Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST). 47% (8/17) of the tested strains were positive strains for <em>ica</em>A gene; 82.3% (14/17) for <em>ica</em>D gene; 41% (7/17) for <em>fbn</em>A gene; 47% (8/17) positive for <em>fbn</em>B gene; 94% (16/17) for the <em>hl</em>A gene and 70.5% (12/17) for <em>hl</em>B gene. These virulence results generated 11 different profiles. Most strains (58.8% - 10/17) were classified as type-II by <em>agr </em>system. <em>spa </em>typing identified seven different spa types. PFGE analysis found extensive genetic heterogeneity and no clones were observed. MLST analysis generated five different types of ST/CC. Considering the results observed at the present study, a high genetic variety of <em>S. aureus </em>strains associated of the presence of different virulence factors justified the absence of clonal strains at the properties evaluated. Besides, that, the definition of <em>S. aureus </em>clonal strain as well dynamic population in not fully understood since there are a limited number of studies in <em>S. aureus </em>associated with bovine mastitis.</p> 2021-04-09T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Bianca da Silva Soares, Cássia Couto da Motta, Nicolle Lima Barbieri, Dayanne Araújo de Melo, Marisol Alvim Gomez, Tatiani Abreu de Alencar, Irene da Silva Coelho, Shana de Mattos de Oliveira Coelho, Catherine Mary Logue, Miliane Moreira Soares de Souza Ovicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activity of Helicteres velutina K. Schum against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) 2020-11-06T21:20:01-03:00 Diegina Araújo Fernandes Hyago Luiz Rique Louise Helena Guimarães de Oliveira Wilias Greison Silva Santos Maria de Fátima Vanderlei de Souza Fabiola da Cruz Nunes <p><em>Aedes aegypti </em>is a vector of emerging and neglected diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. <em>Helicteres velutina, </em>known as “pitó” in Brazil, is traditionally used as an insect repellent, and several studies have demonstrated its larvicidal activity. The aim of this study was to investigate this species and evaluate its potential ovicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activity. The viability of the eggs was evaluated using different concentrations of the test substances for 25 days. The hexane fraction killed 72.7% of the eggs, while dichloromethane killed 67.7%. The survival of the pupae and adults was verified after 72 h and 48 h, respectively. The LC50 for the hexane and dichloromethane fractions was 0.12 mg/mL and 8.85 mg/mL for pupae, 8.01 mg/mL and 0.74 mg/mL for adults (tarsal test), and 0.05 mg/mL and 0.23 mg/mL for adults (body test), respectively. Repellency was assessed for 240 min using neonatal Wistar rats on a Y-tube olfactometer. The hexane fraction attracted mosquitoes to the test chamber, while the dichloromethane fraction had a repellent action. The 7,4’-di-<em>O</em>-methyl-8-<em>O</em>-sulfate flavone provides greater repellency, and this finding is similar to the results of the <em>in silico </em>studies that have shown the potential of this substance against adult mosquitoes. This suggests that 7,4’-di-<em>O</em>-methyl-8-<em>O</em>-sulfate flavone may be one of the substances present in the extract from aerial parts of <em>H. velutina </em>that is responsible for the repellent activity mentioned in traditional medicine. These findings provide a better understanding of the insecticidal and repellent activity of the extract, fraction, and compounds isolated from <em>H. velutina </em>against <em>Ae. aegypti, </em>thereby revealing its potential in the development of a more effective botanical insecticide.</p> 2021-03-26T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Diegina Araújo Fernandes, Hyago Luiz Rique, Louise Helena Guimarães de Oliveira, Wilias Greison Silva Santos, Maria de Fátima Vanderlei de Souza, Fabiola da Cruz Nunes Effect of ultra-diluted nux vomica and cyclophosphamide solutions on the genotoxicity of allopathic cyclophosphamide 2021-02-25T18:51:07-03:00 Juliana da Silva Coelho Manuella Espindola Vieira Alaide dos Santos Rodrigues Luiz Figueira Pinto Isabel Cristina Fábregas Bonna Kelly Cristina Demarque Maria Alice Amaral Kuzel <p>Homeopathic medicines comprise the use of pharmacotechnical processes that promote successive dilutions, followed by grinding or agitation of compounds. The purpose of this study was to assess the genotoxic potential of ultra-diluted cyclophosphamide (CF) and nux vomica associated with or without allopathic CF in Swiss Webster mice, using the micronucleus test. The compounds were prepared according to the Brazilian homeopathic pharmacopoeia. Swiss Webster mice were randomly divided into eight groups (n=6) according to the compounds to be tested and received by gavage (vehicle or CF) or by oral mucosa contact (ultra-diluted CF and nux vomica, and dynamized solutions) once a day for 7 days. After this, one of the groups treated with the dynamized compound was challenged by the administration of the allopathic CF. The dynamized ultra-diluted nux vomica and CF compounds showed lower white cell counts in mice. However, no compound was able to mitigate the genotoxic effects of CF in micronucleus assay. The dynamized compounds did not cause damage to the spleen and thymus, and when used intraperitoneally, they were able to mitigate the effect of CF on thymic cortical reduction in mice. Further studies with nux vomica and dynamized CF should be performed to better delineate their possible therapeutic potential in reducing adverse effects on chemotherapy.</p> 2021-03-08T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Juliana da Silva Coelho, Manuella Espindola Vieira, Alaide dos Santos Rodrigues, Luiz Figueira Pinto, Isabel Cristina Fábregas Bonna, Kelly Cristina Demarque, Maria Alice Amaral Kuzel 3D models of nonunion fractures in long bones as education tools 2020-12-11T11:28:34-03:00 Katriny Elifelina Monteiro Rodrigues Kleber dos Anjos Lucas Andrey Luis Lopes Cordeiro Romeu Paulo Martins Silva Francisco Glauco de Araújo Santos Yuri Karaccas de Carvalho <p>The appearance of fracture complications can present itself as a difficult scenario in a veterinarian’s practice, and it can be difficult to diagnose and have a poor prognosis. The recognition of the different types of nonunion fractures can enable quick guidance on the best way to act, thus reducing the cost of treatment and the patient’s suffering. The objective of this study was to create 3D models of nonunion fractures in long bones (3D NUFs). The study was carried out in three stages: 1) creating biscuit models from representations of nonunion fractures; 2) scanning the biscuit models of nonunion fractures and 3D modeling; and 3) printing and finishing the 3D models of nonunion fractures (hereafter, 3D NUFs). The creation of biscuit prototypes and the respective digitalization were decisive in producing 3D NUFs, which reproduced the main characteristics of each type of nonunion fracture classification described in the literature. It took 31.1 hours to create and print all 3D NUFs using 95.66 grams of filament (ABS) for a total cost of $3.73. The creation of 3D NUFs from the biscuit dough presented a new way of obtaining didactic models for the teaching of veterinary medicine. The 3D NUFs represent the different forms of low-cost manifestations that characterize this disease, which can be used as a possible teaching-learning tool for veterinary education.</p> 2021-03-18T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Katriny Elifelina Monteiro Rodrigues, Kleber dos Anjos Lucas, Andrey Luis Lopes Cordeiro, Yuri Karaccas de Carvalho, Patricia Peruquetti Lomustine therapy for vincristine-resistant canine transmissible venereal tumor: a case report 2021-02-19T14:41:39-03:00 Alicia Decuadro Barboza Natalie Ruiz Algibay Cecilia Menéndez Caorsi Natalia Bartesaghi Villardino Cecilia Amaral Oribe Scott Brandl Alejandro Benech Gulla <p>Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is a transmissible cancer that affects the external genitalia of dogs. In this study, a female canine with CTVT in the vagina was treated with vincristine (0.75 mg/m<sup>2</sup>; intravenous (IV); weekly for eight cycles), the currently preferred drug for CTVT, but without any progress. Therefore, this case was considered resistant to vincristine, and the preferred alternative chemotherapy, doxorubicin, was suggested. However, based on echocardiographic evidence, the patient could not be administered doxorubicin. Thus, the administration of lomustine was proposed. Although there are no studies to support this decision, the authors based their decision on the fact that lomustine is effective for round cell tumors, and that CTVT belongs to this tumor group. After three doses (60 mg/m<sup>2</sup>; every 3 weeks) complete remission was achieved. The use of lomustine at a dose of 60 mg/m<sup>2</sup> every 3 weeks for vincristine-resistant CTVT proved to be effective, without any harmful side effects. The treatment is cost-effective and simple to manage.</p> 2021-03-08T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Alicia Decuadro Barboza, Natalie Ruiz Algibay, Cecilia Menéndez Caorsi, Natalia Bartesaghi Villardino, Cecilia Amaral Oribe, Scott Brandl, Alejandro Benech Gulla First report of the presence of Trypanosoma evansi in dogs from Paraguay applying molecular techniques 2021-04-05T18:02:59-03:00 Oscar Daniel Salvioni Recalde Stefanía Fraenkel María José Tintel Verónica Paola Arze Natalia Ramírez Centurión Miriam Rolón Celeste Vega Gómez <p>Surra is a disease caused by the hemoflagellate pathogen Trypanosoma evansi which affects a wide variety of mammals. The only cases reported of the presence of T. evansi in Paraguay were identified in samples from horses and capybaras and they were detected by light microscopy in the 19th century. The aim of this study is to report three autochthonous cases of canine trypanosomiasis caused by T. evansi, for the first time in the country, using molecular techniques and their application for the differential diagnosis of trypanosomatids species. The technique implemented was real-time PCR-HRM, amplifying a fragment of the hsp70&nbsp;gene, using a pair of primers initially used to discriminate Leishmania species. This is the first report on the usage of these primers to detect T. evansi through HRM analysis, which allows the&nbsp;differentiation of trypanosomatids species simultaneously, making it an efficient tool for differential diagnosis.</p> 2021-04-06T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Oscar Daniel Salvioni Recalde, Stefanía Fraenkel, María José Tintel, Verónica Paola Arze, Natalia Ramírez Centurión, Miriam Rolón, Celeste Vega Gómez Canine heartworm: natural infection along remote coastal area of Rio de Janeiro 2021-03-31T10:03:22-03:00 Mário dos Santos Filho Bruno Alberigi Debora Macedo Pedroso Balius Nathália Marques de Oliveira Lemos Alexandre José Rodrigues Bendas Jonimar Pereira Paiva <p><em>Dirofilaria immitis </em>is a mosquito-borne nematode that often infects dogs worldwide and causes what is commonly referred to as heartworm disease. The infection is recognized as being more prevalent in tropical and subtropical coastal regions; however, due to recent climate changes, it has been detected in regions previously considered free of infection. The asymptomatic animals presented in this case report had their infections detected opportunistically. One was presented for a routine checkup and the other for pre-operative evaluation. In the checkup case, heartworm disease was suspected after auscultation. In the presurgical case, microfilariae were found when cytology was performed. Both dogs had <em>D. immitis </em>infection confirmed by antigen detection using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. The microfilariae were confirmed to be <em>D. immitis. </em>This report highlights the unsuspected finding of the infection in a region where canine heartworm disease has not been a concern. It throws light on the importance of constant surveillance of animal vector-borne diseases in areas of ecotone. Surveillance must be reinforced when natural resources are disturbed, especially in the face of global climate change.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mário dos Santos Filho, Bruno Alberigi, Debora Macedo Pedroso Balius, Nathália Marques de Oliveira Lemos, Alexandre José Rodrigues Bendas, Jonimar Pereira Paiva Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a healthy adult feline (Felis catus domesticus): diagnosis to surgical treatment - Case report 2021-03-23T13:44:41-03:00 Ana Carolina de Souza Campos Lucas Rabaça dos Santos Fernando Elisio Torres Juliana Letícia Rossetto Marques Caroline Lopes Martini Stéfani Franco de Sá Menezes Gabriela Moscatel Fevrier Viviane Horta Gomes <p>Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia (PPDH) is a communication between the abdomen and the pericardial sac generated by congenital anomalies triggered during diaphragmatic and pericardial development. This report aimed to present the case of an adult, mixed-breed cat, affected by PPDH, focusing on the period from diagnosis to successful surgical correction. The patient had a capricious appetite and weight loss for about four months and started, at the end of this period, a state of apathy. On abdominal ultrasound, the gallbladder (GB) was close to the heart, suggesting diaphragmatic discontinuity. On thoracic radiography, there were changes suggestive of PPDH, pericardial efusion or cardiomegaly with probable dilated cardiomyopathy. Based on these findings, an echocardiogram was performed, highlighting the hepatic lobe and GB internally to the pericardium, causing cardiac compression, although without severe cardiac changes. During surgery, a diaphragmatic defect of 4 cm in diameter was observed with the congested right medial hepatic lobe and hyperemic GB in the pericardial sac. The defect was sutured using the sultan pattern in separate stitches and polyamide threads. The feline returned to feeding with greater interest soon after the surgery, and after 15 days it was fed with dry food and had normal behavior. PPDH can be diagnosed in healthy adult cats, even if there are no apparent respiratory, gastrointestinal, or cardiac signs. The echocardiogram is relevant in the definitive diagnosis, in addition to excluding differential diagnoses, and simple surgical treatment with polyamide thread and sultan suture is successful.</p> 2021-03-23T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ana Carolina de Souza Campos, Lucas Rabaça dos Santos, Fernando Elisio Torres, Juliana Letícia Rossetto Marques, Caroline Lopes Martini, Stéfani Franco de Sá Menezes, Gabriela Moscatel Fevrier, Viviane Horta Gomes Epidemiological surveillance of main vector borne arboviral diseases in Brazil: a brief review 2021-02-26T10:25:12-03:00 Viviane Câmara Maniero Raíssa Dias Fares Cristiane da Cruz Lamas Sergian Vianna Cardozo <p>In recent years, there has been an increase in infections caused by arboviruses in tropical countries, resulting in 700,000 deaths yearly; this is now considered a worldwide public health problem. In Brazil, dengue, Zika, and chikungunya are the main circulating arboviruses, which can be transmitted by the same vectors (<em>Aedes aegypti</em> and <em>Aedes albopictus</em>). In addition, more than 80% of the world's population lives in areas that are at a risk of having at least one of the main vector-borne diseases, as vector control remains neglected. To optimize interventions, it is necessary to make greater strategic investments, i.e., to improve entomological surveillance and coordination within and between sectors as well as to strengthen monitoring systems. For implementation, the anatomy, physiology, and habits of the vectors must be known in order to adopt correct measures for the control of these vectors. Thus, several methods are used according to climatic conditions, regions, and rainfall, as these directly influence the vector cycle. Finally, the use of techniques applied in molecular surveillance, such as xenomonitoring, can help to control vectors, thus preventing new outbreaks of arboviruses.</p> 2021-03-06T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Viviane Câmara Maniero, Raíssa Dias Fares, Cristiane da Cruz Lamas, Sergian Vianna Cardozo