Diagnóstico, aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos de bovinos leiteiros naturalmente infectados por Tripanosoma vivax nos estados de Pernambuco e Alagoas, Brasil.
Trypanosoma vivax is the most pathogenic ruminant’s hemoparasite, causing huge economic losses to the producer when prevalent in the herd. This study aims to characterize the trypanosomiasis in naturally infected cattle in order to assess the clinical findings, epidemiological risk factors and diagnosis of this disease in outbreaks occurred in the states of Pernambuco and Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. For this purpose, historical and clinical examinations, blood collection and clinical monitoring were performed in 109 animals presenting illness for a period of one year. The main clinical findings were fever, apathy, anorexia, diarrhea, progressive weight loss, lymphadenopathy, pale mucous, incoordination, aggressiveness, abortion, decrease in milk production and high mortality. Out of 109 animals, 94% (103/109) were seropositive to Trypanosoma vivax by ELISA, 92% (100/109) were seropositive for IFAT, 15% (17/109) were positive in conventional PCR assay based on cathepsine L gene, and 9% (10/109) were showed the presence of Trypanosoma vivax trypomastigotes in stained-blood smears. In 13 samples, blood counts revealed that 69.23% (9/13) showed normocytic normochromic anemia and 53.84% (7/13) had leukocytosis, in 46.15% (6/13) neutrophilia and shift left regenerative. In 72 samples also examined whether it hematocrit, plasma protein and fibrinogen. Hematocrit presented average 22% (10% to 37%) to plasma protein had a mean value of 7.55 g/dl (5.4 g/dl to 10.0 g/dl) and plasma fibrinogen had a mean value 700mg/dl (200mg/dl to 1600mg/dl). The sequencing of DNA samples revealed 100% identicalness to T. vivax by BLAST analysis. The main factors involved in the spread of the disease were: the ingress of animals without prior tests and quarantine in the properties, application of oxytocin with sharing needles contaminated by blood at the time of lactation and the restriction of the disease in the lactation herd. The transmission of T. vivax occurred with the sharing of needles among animal’s lactation during application of oxytocin after the entry of carrier animals in the herd. Serological tests demonstrated a high rate of seropositive animals, however, conventional PCR and blood smear revealed a low rate positive animal’s because the animals were already being treated with trypanocide drugs. It is concluded that trypanosomiasis is a disease to be considered in the cattle regions studied as the cause of outbreaks. Hygienic and security actions must be taken during the administration of oxytocin in lactating cows. In fact, this practice, when carried incorrectly and without hygienic criterions and sharing needles, may play a role as the main risk factor in the transmission of trypanosomiasis in dairy herds among regions where the disease is prevalent, increasing the challenge of reinfection of animals.
Copyright (c) 2019 Adony Querubino de Andrade Neto, Carla Lopes de Mendonça, Rodolfo José Cavalcanti Souto, Paulo Henrique Sampaio, Otávio Luiz Fidelis Junior, Marcos Rogério André, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Jose Augusto Bastos Afonso
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