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ABSTRACT. Carlos R.S.A., Albuquerque G.R., Bezerra R.A., Sicupira P.M.L., Munhoz A.D. & Lopes C.W.G. [Ocurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and the risk factors associated with canine infection at Ilhéus-Itabuna Region in the State of Bahia]. Ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii e principais fatores de risco associados à infecção canina na região de Ilhéus-Itabuna, estado da Bahia. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 32(2):115-121, 2010. Curso de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular parasite that has felids as definitive hosts (DH) and has contaminated an innumerous intermediate hosts (IH). In this study 529 canine blood samples were collected, 120 at the Municipality of Itabuna and 409 at the Municipality of Ilhéus. All animals from Itabuna were urban and domiciled. From Ilhéus, 96 were urban and domiciled, 135 were urban and strayed dogs from Zoonosis Control Center (ZCC) and 178 were domiciled but from the country side. The Indirect Hemagglutination Test was used to determine the presence of anti-T. gondii and a questionary was applied to the domiciled dog owners to indicate the risk factors associated to T. gondii infection. Of 529 dogs, 193 were positive (36.5%). At Ilhéus 37.7% (154/ 255) and at Itabuna 32.5% (39/81) dogs were positive. The risk factors associated to infection were that rural dogs had higher chance than urban ones (p=0,001)to be infected, strayed urban dogs had more chance than the urban domiciled dogs (p=0.01) to get infection, homemade food and meat ingestion (p= 0.034 and 0.027 respectively) had an important source of infection, the dogs with an undefined breeding had more risk to be infected (p=0.0001) and old animals over five years old had a higher risk to get infection (p=0.009). The contact with cats and uncooked meat ingestion were not considered as a risk factors (p=0.79 and 0.65 respectively). The presence of veterinary assistance was considered a protection factor. The logistic regression shows that dogs from country side and older animals (above five years) were the most important canine risk factors to this population (p= 0,0000 e p=0,0012 respectively.