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ABSTRACT. Malcher J.C.R., de Oliveira E.L., de Castro L.R.S., da Silva P.B., Ramos E.L.M. & Fernandes J.I. [Efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica) in the treatment of Malassezia sp. otitis externa on dogs]. Eficácia do nim (Azadirachta indica) no tratamento de otite externa por Malassezia sp. em cães. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 34(Supl. 1):89-94, 2012. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Pará, BR-316, Km 61, Castanhal, PA 68740-970, Brasil. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Neem (Azadirachta indica) oil and 10% Neem oil emulsion in the treatment of fungal otitis caused by Malassezia sp. on naturally infected dogs. Thirty-six animals of different breeds and ages were divided into three groups of 12 animals each. Group A, control group, was treated daily with saline solution by spraying. Group B was treated with 100% Neem oil by instilling 0.5 mL in each ear daily. Group C was treated using a 10% Neem oil emulsion at a dose of 3 mL/kg per ear, daily. The treatment duration was 21 days. Animals were evaluated daily for appearance of product-related side effects. Dogs were examined by bilateral cytology on days +3, +7, +14, +21, +28, and + 35 post-treatment to evaluate efficacy of treatments. No adverse reactions were seen in any of the treated animals. Despite the clinical improvement of all treated animals, the Neem oil and the 10% Neem oil emulsion were not efficacious in the treatment of ear infections caused by Malassezia sp.