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ABSTRACT. de Oliveira U.V., Galvão G. da S., de Magalhães V.C.S., Costa S.C.L., Andrioli J.L., Ribeiro A.R. da P. & Munhoz A.D. Seropositivity for Neospora caninum as factor associated with infectious mastitis in crossbred cows in Northeastern Brazil. [Soropositividade para Neospora caninum como fator associado à mastite infecciosa em vacas mestiças no nordeste brasileiro]. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária 34(4):270-274, 2012. Laboratório de Análises Clínicas Veterinária, Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Campus Soane Nazaré de Andrade, Rodovia Ilhéus-Itabuna Km 16, Ilhéus, BA 45662- 900, Brazil. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org The aim of this study was to verify the relation of absence of infectious mastitis in cows exposed to Neospora caninum. From 10 dairy farms located in northeastern Brazil 20% of lactating cows were selected, totaling 203 animals. The blood of each cow was obtained for serology; California Mastitis Test (CMT) was performed for measurement of somatic cell count. Milk was collected only from teats CMT reagent for bacterial isolation. Serology was performed by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test using cut-off point of 1:200. A structured interview was carried out about animals’ management, with variables that could influence mastitis cases, such as: presence of calf during milking, use of milking machine, veterinary care, somatic cell count routinely measured, age of animals, culling of cows in the farms, cleanliness of milker before milking and disinfection of teats before and after milking. Unconditional logistic regression was performed where it was observed that the presence of the calf during milking (p<0.0001) and cows seropositive for N. caninum (p=0.0311) were protection associated factors. It was concluded that crossbred cows exposed to N. caninum with no history of abortion were less susceptible to mastitis.