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ABSTRACT. Veiga C.C.P., Serra, M.C., Rodrigues P.H.S., Bomfim P.C., de Oliveira P.C., de Souza B.G. & Ferreira A.M.R. [Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous prostatitis in dog - case report]. Cistite e prostatite enfisematosas em cão - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 34(2):91-95, 2012. Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: email@example.com Emphysematous cystitis is an infectious disease of the bladder with the presence of air in the wall and light. It usually occurs in diabetes mellitus. Emphysematous prostatitis is an inflammation difficult case. The mechanism of air formation is the fermentation of glucose, but emphysematous prostatitis may also occur in non-diabetic animals. Ultrasonography has been widely used in the diagnosis of prostatic diseases and bladder. Radiographic examination can also bring information useful in diseases that affect the prostate and bladder of dogs. The purpose of this report is to describe the clinical, laboratory and imaging (radiography and ultrasound) from a canine patient, diabetic, with emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous prostatitis. By ultrasonography it was possible to identify the air inside the bladder and prostate, as well as radiographic exam in side projection, confirming the diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous prostatitis. The positive contrast cystography favored the identification of bladder wall thickening and facilitated the differentiation between the bladder and prostate. The bacterium was isolated Enterobacter sp. after 40 days of treatment with cefaclor, the animal was reassessed. In this second phase the changes in the radiographs and ultrasound showed an increase of the animal.