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ABSTRACT. Estruc M.T., Gomes M.S., Palhano H.B. & Abidu-Figueiredo M. [Caudal mesenteric artery agenesis in a cat - Case report]. Agenesia da artéria mesenté- rica caudal em um gato - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária 34(2):83-85, 2012.Área de Anatomia Animal, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 km 7, Seropédica, 23890-000, RJ, Brasil. E-mail: email@example.com Considering that the anatomical knowledge is necessary to understand biological functions, enabling clinical and surgical procedures this macroscopic study of the caudal mesenteric artery was carried out, with the aim of increasing knowledge of comparative anatomy for the implementation of the respective procedures. Data from specialized literature on cat vascular anatomy are scarce and they are always related to dogs. With the intention to report a vascular variation not previously described in cat this paper describes the caudal mesenteric artery agenesis in one adult, cross breed male cat. This vascular variation was already described in humans and analyzed in this report. The knowledge an agenesis of the caudal mesenteric artery cat will contribute to a better understanding of the anatomical alterations that may occur in the abdominal vascularization in this specie and is also important for angiographic, duplex Doppler ultrasonography and clinical and surgical procedures involving this region.