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ABSTRACT. Bezerra R.A., Mendonça C.E.D., Sicupira P.M.L., Munhoz A.D., Ribeiro A.R.P., Carlos R.S.A. & Albuquerque G.R. [Prevalence of antibodies against Brucella canis in dogs at the Region of Ilhéus-Itabuna in the State of Bahia, Brazil]. Prevalência de anticorpos contra Brucella canis em cães na região de Ilhéus-Itabuna, estado da Bahia, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 34(1):27-30, 2012. Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, BA 415 KM 16, Salobrinho, Ilhéus, 45662-000, BA, Brasil. E-mail: email@example.com The aim of this study was to determine anti-Brucela canis antibodies in dogs from Ilhéus-Itabuna region, Bahia state. To diagnose test used was agar gel imunodiffusion, and the antigen was Reo 198. 638 dogs blood samples were tested. These animals were provenient from different neighborhood from Ilhéus-Itabuna, including urban and rural area. From all the samples 3,4% (22/638) (IC 95% = 2,2% – 5,3%) were positive to anti-B. canis anibodies. Anylizing the two municipalities individually, 3,2% (16/499) (IC 95% = 1,9% – 5,3%) dogs were positive in Ilhéus e 4,3% (6/139) (IC 95% = 1,6% – 9,2%) dogs were positive in Itabuna. The variants that were anylized were: dogs maintained in owners house, age, habitat, municipality, to have a veterinary responsible for the dog, breed, sex, dog that go travel outside the municipality, and contact with other animals. No statistic significance was noted in any association.