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ABSTRACT. de Campos C.H.C., Prado R.F.S., Guimarães A., da Silva A.T., Baldani C.D., Cordeiro M.D., Pires M.S., Peixoto M.P., dos Santos H.A., Machado R.Z., Fonseca A.H. & Massard C.L. [Epidemiological aspects and seroprevalence of Theileria equi in horses for military use at the Municipality of Resende in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.] Aspectos epidemiológicos e soroprevalência de Theileria equi em equinos de uso militar no município de Resende, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 35(Supl.2):106-112, 2013. Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras, BR 116 Km 306, Resende, RJ 27533-060, Brasil. E-mail: email@example.com The protozoan, Theileria equi is one of the main agents transmitted by ticks to horses, causing serious barriers to equine breeding in Brazil. Its epidemiology in the country still has gaps. Thus, this study aimed to perform serological diagnosis and assess the risk factors for military use in horses located at the Municipality of Resende, in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Samples of 174 horses were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indirect adsorption (iELISA) using partially purified T. equi antigen. The dependent variable (seroreactivity) was tested through bivariate analysis, the association as the independent variables (gender, age, racial definition, group management, breeding time at Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras (AMAN), breeding system, the equine origin, presence and degree of tick infestation). Variables with association in bivariate analysis (p≤0.25) were included in the logistic regression model. It was found that seropositivity for T. equi was 74.14%. Multivariate analysis showed that the time of creation in AMAN higher than 15 years is associated with seropositivity for T. equi (OR: 5.70, CI: 1.23 to 22.1). It can be inferred that the area is endemic, with a high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers, and enzootic stability. This evokes care and preventive measures in the introduction of horses in the herd.