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ABSTRACT. Galvão G. da S., Flausino W. & Lopes C.W.G. [Frequency of antibodies anti-Neospora caninum in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]. Anticorpos anti-Neospora caninum em búfalos (Bubalus bubalis) no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 35 (Supl.2):13-16, 2013. Curso de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Campus Seropédica, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, 23897-970, RJ, Brasil.E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org This study aimed to determine the presence of antibodies against Neospora caninum and the distribution among the different age groups in water buffaloes herds located in the mesoregions that comprise the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The frequency of seropositive animals in herds was 29.76% (86/ 289). Antibodies against N. caninum was detected in 14 (87.5%) of 16 properties, with positive ranging from 3.57 to 100%. Of the 298 animals examined, only 270 water buffaloes could be categorized into four age groups: ≤ 2 years, 2 to ≤ 4 years, 5-6 years and> 6 years, were subjected to indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), with a cutoff of 1:200, thus presenting 27.41 % of seropositive animals (74/ 270). The Fisher exact test was used with a significance level of 5%. In the present study we observed differences in seropositivity according to different ages (p = 0.027), and animals aged more than five years had 2.62 further chances of exposure.The results show the exposure of water buffaloes to N. caninum in the regions studied, and should include the parasite in the differential diagnosis of possible cases of water buffaloes abortion, and revel the need to adopt health measures for the control of infection in water buffaloes herds.