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ABSTRACT. Atallah F.A., Silva R.S., Ramos M.L.M., Oliveira A.L.A., França T.N. & Brito M.F. [Postoperative complications in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy in Rio de Janeiro]. Complicações pós-cirúrgicas em cadelas submetidas a ovário-histerectomia no Rio de Janeiro. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 35(Supl.1):61- 69, 2013. Curso de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Animal, CCTA, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Av. Alberto Lamego 2000, Horto, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ 25959-215, Brasil. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org The aim was to evaluate the postoperative complications in 20 bitches previously submitted to ovariohysterectomy in Rio de Janeiro city, to correct these complications by surgery, and to correlate the findings in preoperative diagnostic exams with those found during exploratory laparotomy. The bitches were evaluated until the third month after consultation. They were submitted to clinical and laboratory exams, and to ultrasound of the pelvic and abdominal regions. The most important complications found were fistulas, granuloma, adherence, ovarian remnants, hydronephrosis, and hydroureter. The complications after OVH appeared immediately after surgery up to eight years. This study revealed that mistakes occur frequently in several scales during the veterinary practice and may cause alterations in organs and lead to death.