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ABSTRACT. Santos G.R., de Oliveira, J.M.B., Brandespim D. F., Oliveira A.A. da F., Mota R.A. & Pinheiro Júnior J.W. [Epidemiological analysis of infection by Enzootic Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) in the microregion of Garanhuns, Pernambuco, Brazil]. Análise epidemiológica da infecção pelo vírus da Leucose Enzoótica Bovina (LEB), na microrregião Garanhuns, Pernambuco, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 35(4):371-377, 2013. Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Unidade Acadêmica de Garanhuns, Av. Bom Pastor s/n, Boa Vista, Garanhuns, PE 55296-901, Brasil. E-mail: email@example.com The objective of this study was to make a cross-sectional epidemiological study on the infection of Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) in dairy cattle originating from farms of the microregion of Garanhuns, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Four hundred forty nine blood samples were collected on 19 dairy herds distributed in 15 municipalities of the region of Garanhuns. Samples were subjected to the agar gel immunodiffusion technique (AGID) to detect specific anti-BLV serum antibodies. To identify the risk factors associated with infection was performed a univariate statistical analysis for those variables of interest using the chi-square test and then a logistic regression analysis considering as dependent variable, serology (reagent or no reagent). Within the 449 samples analyzed for BLV infection, there was a prevalence of 20.7% (95% CI 17.1 to 82.9). There were 63.2% of foci for BLV virus infection. The prevalence of infection on the studied farms ranged from 0.1% to 77.9%. In logistic regression analysis there was a risk factor: intensive farming system (OR 19.1, CI 6.9 to 52.6), performance of palpation (OR 2.1, CI 1.3 to 3.4) management of handlers (OR 2.8, CI 1.2 to 6.5) and as a protective factor, fly control (OR 0.2, CI 0.1 to 0.4), heat treatment of the colostrum (OR 0.7, CI 0.5 to 0.9); importation of animals for replacement (OR 0.5, CI 0.3 to 0.9). Based on these results it appears that BLV infection is present and widespread in the studied region and control procedures should be implemented urgently to prevent the spread of the virus to other properties in the region and other Brazilian States.