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ABSTRACT. de Almeida C.T., Lorenzon M.C.A. & Tassinari W. de S. [Identification of factors associated with diseases of Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) on apiaries in the State of Rio de Janeiro]. Identificação de fatores associados à ocorrência de doenças de abelhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera L.) em apiários do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 35(1):33-40, 2013. Departamento de Matemática, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: email@example.com Africanized bees (Apis mellifera L.) are considered resistant to diseases and pests, however, data from Census 2006 Bee Fluminense warned about the high incidence of diseases, which are the main cause for the loss of hives in the state of Rio de Janeiro. These losses result in major damage to beekeeping class by reducing the productivity of the apiaries. To assist in loss control, this study aims to investigate the cities of Rio de Janeiro with a high prevalence of bee diseases and verify the potential environmental and management factors associated with the occurrence of these diseases. Data from this study are from the survey hives occurred in Rio de Janeiro between 2009 and 2010, through the use of questionnaires in apiaries. We used logistic regression models to measure the association between potential factors and bee diseases. It was found that the cities with the highest prevalence of diseases were: Sapucaia, Mendes, Paracambi, Silva Jardim, Rio Bonito and São José do Vale do Rio Preto. The factors that are related to the occurrence of diseases in apiaries were: beekeeping materials purchased out of state (OR 2.91, 95% CI: 1.26 - 6.70), absence of neighboring beekeepers in a radius of 5 km ( OR 2.59, 95% CI: 1.30 - 5.14), presence of agriculture at 5 km of the apiary (OR 2.50, 95% CI: 1.18 - 5.28), the production division artificial hives (OR 2.57, 95% CI: 1.22 to 5.41), poor hygiene of beekeepers (OR 3.72, 95% CI: 1.47 - 9.38), the non-occurrence of bloom at harvest rosemary honey (OR 1.94, 95% CI: 1.02 - 3.69) and the lack of technical assistance to beekeepers (OR 3.18, 95% CI: 1.20 – 8.45). Measures for implementation of good manufacturing practices are urgent, especially in cities with higher prevalence of bee diseases.