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ABSTRACT. Rocha D.S., Guimarães L.A., Bezerra R.A., Mendonça C.E.D., Dórea T.G., Munhoz A.D. & Albuquerque G.R. [Seroprevalence and factors associated to Neospora caninum infection in sheep from Southeastern Bahia, Brazil.] Soroprevalência e fatores associados à infecção de Neospora caninum em ovinos no sudeste da Bahia, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(4):443-447, 2014. Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, BA 415Km 16, Salobrinho, Ilhéus, BA 45662- 000, Brasil. E-mail: email@example.com This study aimed at identifying the main factors related to Neospora caninum seroprevalence in sheep. The Indirect Immunofluorescence Reaction (RIFI) was used to identify antibodies in 795 samples of sheep serum, from 31 farms distributed in nine municipalities of the Southeastern Bahia. The prevalence was 13.2% (105/795), with titers varying between 50 (12.4%), 100 (26.7%), 200 (14.3%), 400 (19%), 800 (18%), 1600 (4.8%) and 3200 (4.8%). In the statistical model of logistic regression the following factors were found: presence of sheepfold (p= 0.009), use of hay (p=0.045), capacity rate (p=0.003) and the presence of dogs (p= 0.010) as protection factors associated to the infection by N. caninum. It may be concluded that the sheep flock from Southeastern Bahia, is exposed to the infection due to N. caninum.