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ABSTRACT. Marques L.M., Carlos R.S.A., Silva E.B., Clark R.M.O., Sampaio K.M.O.R. & Harvey T.V. [Inability and neglect in ovarian-salpingohysterectomy of a bitch - Case report.] Imperícia e negligência em ovariosalpingohisterectomia de uma cadela - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(4):425-429, 2014. Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Rodovia Jorge Amado, Km 16, Salobrinho, Ilhéus, BA 45662-900 Brasil. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org The veterinarian is error-prone in professional performance and is subject to punishment by the Board of Veterinary Medicine, establishing a series of penalties based on the Code of Ethics of the Veterinarian and vary according to the offense committed. Research shows that judicial conflicts involving clinic small animals tend to increase in major centers and in most situations, these conflicts include moral damages. The incompetence, recklessness and negligence are characterized as elements of guilt or the externalization of wrongful conduct and offenses arising from these elements are mainly causal, lack of information and knowledge of the professional offender. The objective of this report is to describe a case of recklessness and malpractice in a female Rotweiller sterilization surgery (ovary-salpingo-hysterectomy) and after a laparotomy performed at the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, was found an accidental ureter in a ligature and an abdominal cavity encapsulated foreign body.