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ABSTRACT. Teixeira V.C.M., Baptista D.Q., Carlos F.C., Menezes W.R., José D.S., Barreto M.L., Abreu D.L.C., Pereira V.L.A. & Nascimento E.R. [Epidemiological situation of avian mycoplamosis in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.] Situação epidemiológica da micoplasmose aviária no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4):379-385, 2015. Departamento de Saúde Coletiva Veterinária e Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Vital Brasil, 64, Santa Rosa, Niterói, RJ 24320-340, Brasil. E-mail: email@example.com This study was conducted to characterize the Mycoplasmosis epidemiological situation in Rio de Janeiro State. The state was divided into three regions considered significant in poultry production in the state and 252 samples of tracheal specimens were taken, using swabs dipped in 1.5ml of Frey medium and 2.5 ml of blood from 884 birds, in 47 flocks, from 11broiler chickens farms, 6 laying hens farms and 1 broiler breeders farm, of which were evaluated 334 broilers, 205 laying hens and 345 broilers breeders. The serums were subjected to Rapid Serum Agglutination (RSA) and ELISA for detection of antibodies against Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and M. synoviae (MS) and the swabs used in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for those agents detection. Were obtained by SAR for MG and MS in the 884 birds studied, frequencies of 14.25% (126/884) and 13.68% (121/884), respectively. By ELISA, were btained 16.17% (143/884) for MG and 15.61% (138/884) for MS. According to the type of production, it was found in broilers chickens by SAR, 11.37% (38/334) for MG and 9.5% (32/334) for MS and in the ELISA, 9.28% (31/334) for MG and 9.88% (33/334) for MS. In laying chickens, the frequency of positive birds by SAR for MG and MS were in an amount of 42.92% (88/205) and 43.41% (89/205), respectively, and by ELISA, 54.63% (112/205) for MG and 49.75% (102/205) for MS. The broiler breeders shown to be negative for MG by SAR and by ELISA, but for MS, 0.86% (2/345) were positive only by ELISA. When comparing the frequencies for MG and MS in the flocks studied, by SAR, was obtained a total of positivity of 55.31% (26/47) for MG and 63.82% (30/47) for MS, and by ELISA, 51.06% (24/47) and 68.08% (32/47), respectively. For each type of production, was obtained for the broilers chickens a positivity to the SAR of 40% (10/25) for MG e 56% (14/25) for MS; and to the ELISA, 28% (7/25) e 60% (15/25) for MG and MS, respectively. In laying chickens was obtained values of 80% (16/20) for the MG and MS by SAR, whereas by ELISA, was obtained 85% (17/20) for MG and 75% (15/20) for MS. In breeders, by ELISA both two flocks studied were positive only for MS. By PCR, the total of positivity for MG and MS were in an amount of 1.19% (3/252) and 9.92% (25/252), respectively. For each type of production, were obtained 0.78% (1/127) of positive for MS in broilers chickens. In laying hens chickens, the results were 2.6% (3/115) positive for MG and 20.86% (24/115) for MS. About the broiler breeders, there was no positivity by PCR. The frequency of positives for MG and MS, by PCR, in the total of the flocks studied were, respectively, 2.12% (1/47) and 21.27% (10/47). By type of production, were not found positive flocks for MG, however, for MS was obtained 4% (1/25) in the broilers. In laying chickens, it was verified that 5% (1/20) of the flocks were positive for MG and 45% (9/20) for MS. All flocks of broiler breeders were negative for MG and MS. Higher prevalence for MS were detected in the layeing hens farms than in the broilers farms and breeders farm, such as by serology as by PCR. The prevalence of MG was higher in broilers chickens than in broilers breeders. There was high positivity in laying hens, whose data was not considered because included vaccinated chickens. There were differences in the results obtained for the broilers flocks and laying hens flocks and in the positivity among the flocks, which can be attributed to differences in farm building and structures, in the ambience and manger inherent to each type of production. In this research for MG and MS in poultry production, was obtained higher frequency of positive by ELISA than by SAR, with a low agreement between the tests.