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ABSTRACT. Bastos E.M.D´A., Leal P.D.S. & Lopes C.W.G. [Morphological evaluation of the importance of neutrophils as systemic markers of infection in dogs. Report of two cases.] Importância da avaliação morfológica de neutrófilos como marcadores de infecção sistêmica em cães. Relato de dois casos. Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(2):195-202, 2016. Centro de Terapia Intensiva e Emergência Veterinária, Av. das Américas, 3939, Bloco 2, Loja I., Barra da Tijuca, RJ 22631-003, Brasil. E-mail: email@example.com Infection and inflammation produce an acute response, where accelerating the neutropoiesis and stimulating the release of neutrophil with morphological changes into the bloodstream, are called toxic neutrophils. These changes are identified in the blood smear, which may present cytoplasmic basophilia and/ or vacuolation, Döhle bodies, toxic granulation and giant neutrophils. This acute response can trigger a systemic inflammatory process, a clinical manifestation of the body to a serious stimulus, which is a potentially fatal condition where an early appropriate diagnosis is essential for the survival of the animal. In most cases, these diseases occur interconnected with periodontal disease, whereas 80% of dogs have this chronic infectious process which may contribute to the development and/or exacerbation of local and systemic diseases. This work aimed to present the importance of the morphological evaluation of leukocytes as infection markers in nulliparous female dogs using pyometra and periodontal disease, by comparing serial blood counts with an interval of approximately 6 hours between them. We concluded that the study of the toxic neutrophils in serial blood counts can be useful in monitoring systemic infections.