Retrospective study of retroviruses by immunoenzymatic test on cats in Grande Vitória (ES, Brazil) and associated neoplasms

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Isabella Oliveira Almeida
Mariana Arnoni Alves da Silva
Bruna Voltolin de Sena
Jeanne Saraiva da Paz
Tamara de Almeida Jaretta
Priscila Camargo Granadeiro Faria
Rodrigo dos Santos Horta


Retroviruses are among the leading causes of death in domestic cats. Retroviruses associate with the host cell in a persistent and permanent way, leading to diverse clinical conditions. The feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is the most pathogenic retrovirus with the potential to cause both degenerative diseases and immunosuppression, as well as proliferative diseases, as its association with the cell may lead to a direct oncogenic effect. The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), in turn, can lead to the classic immunodeficiency syndrome, usually has a chronic, less aggressive course and has no direct oncogenic effect. The use of vaccines and control measures has resulted in a decrease in the prevalence of FeLV in the United States of America (USA) and Europe, however, in Brazil, statistics show prevalence rates above 50%. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of feline retroviruses, by immunoenzymatic assay testing, in the region of Grande Vitória, in Espírito Santo and also point out the frequency of neoplasms in these cats. A total of 388 cats were retrospectively evaluated (2014-2016). The prevalence of FIV was 2.3% and FeLV was 33.7%. Neoplasms were identified in the three cats seropositive for FIV and FeLV and in three cats infected only with FIV. Neoplasms were also found in 26.6% of cats that were seropositive only for FeLV, especially mediastinal lymphoma. The high prevalence of FeLV demonstrated in this study highlights the need for establishing effective control measures, with emphasis on vaccination.

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Oliveira Almeida, I. ., Arnoni Alves da Silva, M. ., Voltolin de Sena, B. ., Saraiva da Paz, J. ., de Almeida Jaretta, T. ., Camargo Granadeiro Faria, P., & dos Santos Horta, R. . (2021). Retrospective study of retroviruses by immunoenzymatic test on cats in Grande Vitória (ES, Brazil) and associated neoplasms. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 43(1), e114220.
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